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may say either

From *Te karu-kh, made by them, they made.

TT karu.h-as, they made me (or they made for him).
Har kąrw.h-akh, they made thee (or for them).
[**vą kar».h-an, they made him, is not used. We say,

6 ke sub karu-kh].
mfru kari-h-awa, they made you.
[ofera kari-h-akh, they made them, is not used. We say,

faq afią tim kari-kh. afire kari-h-akh, means "he

made them for them ']. There being no suffix for the first person plural, there are no special forms for thou, he, you, or they made us.

With regard to all these forms, the full forms of the pronouns may also be used, with, or without the suffixes. Thus,We (a) # #TAE mě kara.m-akh tsoh, by me was-made-by

me-thon thou, or (6) The kark-m-akh tsoh, was-made-by-me-thou thou, or () *Thư mě karu-m-akh, by me was-made-by-me-thon, or (d) *TAE kar#makh, was-made-by-me-thou, or (e) amire më karu-kh tsoh, by me was-made-thou thou, or

(f) ** mě karu-kh, by me was-made-thon. We cannot, however, use the two following forms.

(g) may mě karto tison, by-me was-made thon or

(h) Hry o karu-m tsoh, was-made-by-me thon. In other words when the full form of the pronoun in the nominative is used, the corresponding suffix must always accompany it.

Other pronominal suffixes can similarly be used. Thus, that kar.m-ay, I made for thee.

B. Second CONJUGATION.
Neuter Verb (viii. ii. 77–97). (c. Forms only).

I became, &c.

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The verb AT mar, die, has its past tense irregular. It is thus conjugated (viii. iii. 26, 31, 59, 65, 92).

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2

सूदुर mudu-kh. | म्वय moya-kh. | मुदिव mudi-४०. म्वयव moys.u..

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When at mar means to unite, it is regular. Thus, Arą marun, he united him.

5 (a.) THE VERBAL AORIST PARTICIPLE. This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first and second (viii. iii. 78) conjugations it is a true aorist. It expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. E.g., karyov, he (was) made (by us), we made; mata bovyov, he became. It is therefore the participle, and the aorist is the tense, of narration in these two conjugations.

J. 1. 8

In the third conjugntion, it is used instead of the past participle ; and describes something which has happened lately. Thus, we wuphyov, he flew (a short time ago).

This participle is formed in the first and second conjugations by changing the final ye (ě) of the feminine plural of the past participle to sia yðv. Thus, *T kar, do ; past participle #ç karu, fem. plur. ve kurē; aorist participle ifa kuryðv. In those cases, in which the feminine plural ends in a,

instead of in 4 ya (ë), (see p. 42) the aorist participle ends in ga ov, not in za yöv. Thus, 79 daz, burn; past participle & dad", fem. plur. 999 daze ; aorist participle ona da zor. There are four exceptions (viii. iii. 49, 81). The aorist participle of a kots, be moist, is a kotsyöv; that of my vyats, pervade, is qua vyatsyöv; that of the rīts, be preferred, na rūtsyöv; (and that of g wuts, be burnt, yola wutsyov]. Note that in the fem. pl. Past, in these verbs, the a y is elided. Thus kotse, not ketsě; 29 vyatse, not a vyatse; Trotse not to rotse (viii. iii. 49, 81).

In the third conjugation, the aorist participle is formed by adding ga yov to the root direct. Thus, gu wuph, ily, aorist participle gusta wuphyov, but there are exceptions which will be dealt with later on.

Içvara-kaula spells this participle indifferently with ota yov or with ata yauv. Both are pronounced the same, like a yov (viï. iii. 39).

[The true termination of this participle is yo, the v, as well as the y of the plural to be noted later, are only added for the sake of euphony].

Special Rules for the First and Second Conjugations. The base of the aorist participle of the first and second conjugations being the same as the feminine plural of the past participle, the final consonant of the verbal root undergoes certain changes (viii. iii. 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75). For the same reason, in the aorist participle, the vowel of the verbal root remains unchanged (see page 41). The following are examples of the changes. The reader is referred to pp. 42 and ff. for details.

1 Root on thuk, be tired, aorist participle guy thacyov.
2
a lekh, write

áo lech uốt.
3 4 dag, pound

दयो dajyse. .

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4 Root uz phat, be split aorist participle va phacyov.
5 He math, forget

मधोव machyāv.
6
jis gand, bind

गंच्यो ganjyor.
7
ant kat, spin

1a katsõv.
8
wõth, arise

la wõtshov.
9
lad, build

olla lazov.
10
Taran, cook

rañov.
11
otsal, flee

tsajyor.
12 for pih, grind

fuma piçyov.
13
muh, deceive

gwe muçyov.*
14
sah, bear

grla saçyov.
15
goh, grind

mia gofyou.
16
tsch, suck

quia tsofyov. Nos. 7-10 are also examples of the elision of 7 y. The following are further examples, see p. 42 for details.

1 Root fe di, give aorist participle festa ditsov.
2
fe hi, take

a hětsov.
The past participles of these two verbs are irregular, vide p. 45.
3 Root 7 daz, burn, aorist participle goja dazāv.
Te bas, dwell

बसोव basdr.
5
kas, fry

कसो kasov.
But from,
6 Root one thās, bury

area thāsūv, or grea

thäsyov.
7
Te das, beat

दसोव्_dasiv, or दस्योव

dasyov.
And from
8 Root 49 kots, be wet

only cena kotsyöv (p. 58). 9

99 tsas, laugh loudly only ena tgasyov (p. 42). Remember that all these changes occur only in the first and second conjugations. The rules for the third conjugation are quite different.

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* My Pandit prefers wa muhydv.

Special Rules for the Third Conjugation. In this conjugation, the participle (and consequently, the tense formed from it) is not used as an aorist, but as a past; with the same meaning as the past participle of the first and second conjugations. It is not the tense of narration.

The aorist participle is formed by adding to yov to the root. Thus, g4 wuph, ily, gula wuphyov. Befi re this the final consonant of a root is not liable to change, as it is in the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations. Thus, from 78 zēth, be long, & verb of the 3rd conjugation, the aorist participle is gria zēthyov, and not grata sēchyov, as it would be, if the verb belonged to the 2nd conjugation.

Note also that in this conjugation, ? y is not elided after ts, ự tsh, 72, or a ñ (viii. iii. 49). Içvara-kaula in this sūtra gives the following list of verbs, which do not elide q y.

It includes many of the verbs ending in these letters which belong to the third conjugation.

99 grots, be splashed out; ytsõts, have insufficient means of livelihood ; & tshots, be empty; a tēz, be sharp; 49 paz, be fit; 197 braz, shine ; 1997 bāwaz, be preferred ; 29 lěts, be weak; y grūts, be pure. Thus, gan grotsyöv, not a grotsõv.

The other verbs belonging to the third conjugation, which end in these letters, and which are not mentioned by Icvara-kaula in the above sūtra are the following :

99 ats, enter; y trats, fear; tale mots, remain over and above; a atsh, be weak; te gatsh, go; To palaz, be useful; Tyranz, be pléased; T laz, be suitable; 999 wuz, be wide awake, appear. 999 sapaz, become, is considered the same as 749 sapan, or 99 sapad, and belongs to the second conjugation. According to my Pandit eu palaz, above recorded, belongs to the second conjugation. According to my Paņdit, of these, 99 trats and op atsh, always

The others retain it optionally except 49 ats and an gatoh, which are irregular. See below, pp. 64 and 65.

Moreover, qy is not, in this conjugation, elided after { s. All the examples of the elision of qy after this letter given by Içvara-kaula belong either to the first or second conjugation.

retain य.

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