« السابقةمتابعة »
girasa and Várhaspatya for his threefold Prabara, an inhabitant of the village of Dhakari, making the gift descendable to his sons, grandsons and successive descendants, ten ploughs of land (in figures 10 ploughs) in the above named village, the said land requiring seven and a half droņas of seed for cultivation, and bounded on the east by the boundary post of the village of Ranamusra, on the south by the post of the village of Ramasaida, on the west by the tope of Madhuka trees, and on the north by the post of the village of Bijauli: the sacred lands thus bounded with fields of jádya* and lands and water comprised therein, and with right to make all present, past, and future collections from debtors. Knowing this, you should render unto him, in compliance with my orders, shares, usufructs and all other dues. No one must make any opposition to his enjoying these lands with all duties and all Asavas, sugarcanes, cotton, saffron, flax, mango, Madhuka (mová) and other trees, as well as salt mines, and with all other things within the boundary, whether above or below the soil, and whether he enjoys the lands by himself cultivating them, or getting them cultivated by others, and whether he makes a gift of, or mortgages, or sells, them. This grant is irrevocable and interminable, and it should be so preserved by future sovereigns. Thus has it been said: "This earth has been enjoyed by many kings including Sagara and others. To whomsoever belongs the earth for the time being, to him is due the fruit (of such gifts).' Written by Súờha, the clerk of the edict department, and inscribed by the well-connected Jalpana."
Transcript of an inscription from Parganah Augási, Banda. १। स्वस्ति । जयत्यालादयन्विश्वं विश्वेश्वरतिरोतः। चन्द्रान्वयनरेन्द्राणां वंशा
श्चन्द्र इवोज्ज्वलः ॥ तत्र प्रव२। ईमाने विशोभि विजयभाजियजयशक्तिविजयशक्त्यादिवीराविर्भावभाखरे
राजपरमेश्वरश्रीए४ । थ्वीवर्मदेवपादानुध्यातपरमभट्टार कमहाराजाधिराजपरमेश्वर परममाहेश्व
रकालञ्जराधिय५ । तिश्रीयुत्मदन वर्मदेवो विजयी ॥ स एघ दुघिहतरप्रतायतापितसकल
रिपुकुलः कुलवधूमिव वसुन्धरां निराकुलां प
* Probably Joari, Serghain joar.
* श्रीपत्मदन in the original. The is obviously an incorrect writing for य and the qñ should be vocalised.
६। रिपालयन्नविकलविवेकनिर्मलीकृतमतिः ॥ सूडलिविषयान्तःयातिरमूरड़ा
ग्रामोयगतान् कुटम्बिकायस्थमहत्तरा७। दीन् सर्वान् समाज्ञापयति अस्तु वः संविदितं यथोपरि लिखितेऽस्मिन् ग्रामे
हलदशाङ्केपि हल १०मत्कभूमियंत्र, वाउमेकोर८। दे(?) द्रोणसाईसप्त यत्राघाटाः पूर्वस्यां दिशि रणमुखारामदण्डकु । दक्षि
णस्यां दिशि कमा दाग्रादण्डकु । पश्चिमायां दिशि मधुकहै । वृक्षवल्मीका। उत्तरे विजौलीग्रामदण्डकु एवं चतुराघाटविशुद्धा भूमिः
जड़िआक्षेत्रेण सह सजलस्थला सस्थावरजङ्ग१०। मा साधमर्णभूतभविष्यवर्त्तमाननिःोधादायसहिता चास्माभिर्भलखामिस
मीपावासे नवत्यधिकपात कोपेतस११ । हसतमे संवत्सरे माधे मासि शुक्लपक्षे पूर्णिमायां सामवारे अङ्कतोपि संवत्
१९६० माघसुदि १५ सामे ॥ पुण्योदकेन विधिव१२ । त् स्नात्वा देवादीन् सन्तर्प्य भास्करं भवानीपतिं चाभ्यर्च हुतभुजि जत्वा
मातापित्रोरात्मनश्च पुण्याय कारीग्रामविनिर्गताय वाज१३ । सनेयशाखिने भरद्वाजगोत्राय । भरद्वाज। आङ्गिरस । वार्हस्पत्य । ट
प्रवराय । वापनप्रपौत्राय । सानिपौत्राय । जाटपुत्राय । १४ । गभन्तामणे ब्राह्मणाय कुशलतापूतेन हस्तोदकेन खस्तिवाचनयूवं चन्द्रार्क
समकालं पुत्रपौत्राद्यन्वयानुगामित्वेन सम१५ । लं कृत्वा दत्तेति मत्वा भवद्भिराज्ञाश्रवनविवेशभूत्वा भागभोगादिकं सर्व
मस्मै समुपनेतव्यं तदेवामुस्य भूमि सनिर्गमप्रच१६ । यां ससासनेक्षुकासकुसुम्भरणाममधूकादिभूरुहां लवन(ण)खनिनिधा
नामपरैरपि सीमान्तर्गतैर्वभिः सहितां १७ । सवाह्याभ्यन्तरालायां भुञ्जानस्य कर्षतः कर्घयतो दानाधमनविक्रयं वा कुर्वतो
न केनचित् काचिदाधा कर्त्तव्या उत चास्मदा१८ । नमनाच्छेद्यमनाहार्यञ्चेति भाविभिरपि भूमिपालैः पालनीयमिति ॥ उक्तञ्च ॥
बजभिर्वसुधा भुक्ता राजभिः सगरादिभिः । १६ । यस्य यस्य यदा भूमिस्तस्य तस्य तदा फलं ॥ लिखितञ्च धर्मलेखिना श्रोसू
हेन उत्कीर्णञ्च विज्ञातिकजल्पनेनेति ॥
Recent Trans-Frontier Explorations, communicated by Col. J. T. WALKER,
C. B., R. E., Surveyor-General of India.
(With a Map.)
During the year 1876, the Mullá, one of the explorers attached to the Great Trigonometrical Survey, made a survey up the course of the Indus from the point where it enters the plains above Atak, to the point where it is joined by the river of Gilghit. All other portions of the course of the Indus--from the table-lands of Tibet, where it takes its rise, down to its junction with the ocean--have long since been surveyed; but up to the present time this portion has remained unexplored, and has been shown on our maps by a dotted line, the usual symbol for geographical vagueness and uncertainty. Here the great river traverses a distance of some 220 miles, descending from a height of about 5,000 feet to that of 1,200 feet above the level of
Its way winds tortuously through great mountain ranges, whose peaks are rarely less than 15,000 feet in height and culminate in the NangaParbat, the well-known mountain whose height, 26,620 feet, is only exceeded by a very few of the great peaks of the Himalayas. The river in many places is hemmed in so closely by these great ranges, that its valley is but a deep-cut, narrow gorge, and, as a rule, there is more of open space and culturable land in the lateral valleys, nestling between the spurs of the surrounding ranges, than in the principal valley itself.
The positions and heights of all the most commanding peaks in this region had been long fixed by Captain Carter's observations at trigonometrical stations on the British Frontier line ; but no European has ever yet penetrated into it. *
Very difficult of access from all quarters, it is inhabited by a number of hill tribes, each independent and suspicious of the other, who are in a great measure separated and protected from each other by natural barriers and fastnesses. As a whole, the region has never been brought into subjection by any of the surrounding powers. Each community elects its own ruler, and has little intercourse with its neighbours; and with the outer world it only communicates through the medium of a few individuals who have the privilege of travelling over the country as traders. The Mullá possesses this privilege, and thus in the double capacity of trader and explorer, he traversed along the Indus, and through some of the lateral valleys, leaving the others for exploration hereafter.
* Several itineraries which were obtained from native information are published in Dr. Leitner's Dardistán, and they have been combined together, with considerable ingenuity and very tolerable success, by Mr. Ravenstein, in a map published in the Geographical Magazine for August, 1875.
This work done, he proceeded, in accordance with his instructions, to Yásín, marching through the Gilghit Valley, but not surveying it, because the labours of the lamented Hayward, who was murdered at Yásín, already furnished us with a good map of that region. From Yásín he surveyed the southern route to Mastuj through the Ghizar and Sar Laspur Valleys ; this has furnished an important rectification of a route which had hitherto been laid down from conjecture only, and very erroneously ; for the road, instead of proceeding in a tolerably straight direction from Yásín to Mastuj, as was supposed, turns suddenly from south-west to north-north-east at Sar Laspur, which is situated at some distance to the south of the direct line, in a valley lying parallel to the valley of Chitral. At Mastuj the Mullá struck on to his survey of the route from Jalálábád, viâ Dir and Chitral, to Sarhadd-i-Wakhán, in 1873, and then proceeded along that route towards the Baroghil Pass, as far as the junction of the Gazan with the Yarkun River, and then along the northern road from Mastuj to Yásín. This road turns up the Gazan Valley, crosses the Tui ar Moshabar Pass--which is conjectured to be probably not less than 16,000 feet in height—and, after traversing a deep crevassed glacier for a distance of about eight miles, reaches the point where the Tui River issues in great volume from the glacier ; the road then follows the course of the river down to its junction with the Warchagam River, a few miles above Yásín.
Returning to Sar Laspur, the Mullá next surveyed the route to the south-west, up the valley leading to the Tal Pass. This pass is situated on a plateau of the range which connects the mountains on the western boundary of the valley of the Indus with those on the eastern boundary of the valley of Chitral, and is generally known by the people of the country as the Kohistán. The sources and most of the principal affluents of the Swát and the Panjkorá rivers take their rise in this region, all the most commanding peaks of which were fixed by Captain Carter's triangulation ; but of the general lie of the valleys relatively to the peaks, nothing at all definite has been known hitherto. The Mullá has done much to elucidate the geography of this region. On crossing the Tal plateau he descended into the Panjkorá Valley, and traversed its entire length down to Dodbah, at the junction of the Dir river with the Panjkorá, where he again struck on his route survey of 1873.
It would have been well if he could then have gone done the Panjkorá to its junction with the Swát River, but circumstances prevented him from doing so. He therefore travelled along the Havildar's route of 1868 as far as Miánkálai, and then surveyed the road to Nawágai and on to Pasbat in the valley of Kunar; and finally, returning to Nawágái, he surveyed the road from there down to the Britislı fort of Abazai.
Thus the explorations of the Mullá have added much to our knowledge of the geography of the interesting regions lying beyond our northern Trans-Indus Frontier. A good deal, however, still remains to be done before our knowledge of these regions is as full and complete as it should be, and every effort will be made to carry out further explorations as soon as possible.
The accompanying sketch map has been constructed to illustrate the. Mullá's operations; it also shows the localities where more information is wanted. In the north-east corner the results of a recent reconnaissance of portions of the Karambar and the Nagar Valleys by Captain Biddulph are given, but somewhat modified from his map of the country.
Notes on two ancient copper-plate Inscriptions found in the Hamirpúr District, N. W. P.-By V. A. SMITH, B.A., B.C.S. With a Note
by PRÁNNÁTH PANDIT, M.A., B.L. In 1872, a peasant when ploughing in the lands of Mauza Nanyaurá, Parganah Panwárí, Zila Hamírpúr, turned up two inscribed copper-plates. The plates were brought to Mr. W. Martin, C. S., who is now on furlough, and were left by him in the hands of a local pandit (Muralidhar) who was in his service. With the assistance of this man, I have had Nágarí transscripts prepared, and have made translations of the inscriptions.
Plate No. I is 15 inches long by 11 inches broad, and is covered with an inscription of 19 lines, very well engraved and in good order. This record is interesting as throwing light on the chronology and order of succession of the Chandel kings. It tells us that Vidyadhara Deva was succeeded by Vijaya Pála Deva, and that the latter was succeeded by Deva Varmma Deva, lord of Kálinjar, who in 1107, Samvat, bestowed the lands to which the record relates. The statement that Vijaya Pála Deva succeeded Vidyadhara Deva is in accordance with the testimony of the Chhattarpur Mhau inscription, but that document gives Kírttí Varmma as the name of Vijaya Pála's son and successor, whereas my copper-plate instead of Kírttí Varmma names Deva Varmma Deva. Both inscriptions apparently refer to the same prince.
General Cunningham conjecturally assigns 1122 Samvat (1065 A. D.) as the date of the conclusion of Vijaya Pála's reign and the accession of Kírttí Varmma. Whatever was the name of Vijaya Pála's successor, it is clear from this copper-plate inscription that he had begun his reign previous to 1107, Samvat (1050 A. D.).