« السابقةمتابعة »
krt, krat, gyamat, gurat, tshyat, tshot, tot, naț, pat, pit, prakhet, mot, rõt (also second), wot, hat.
kāțh, kuth, krēķh, to amath, zēth, tyath, ļoth, drēķh, nộth, path, põțh, brẽth, mẽ;h, vgath, $ith, crith, hạch.
ad, pēd, bad, bud, mõnd, red, lyad, wud.
and, tund, thad, pyad, bād, brād, wud, syad, cod (this is a better spelling than çöddh).
āman, kān, kyann, krhan, gan, guman, chan, chonn, tshậtshan, tan, tilan, nan, pākan, pran, ban, basan, bākhan, byann, lahan, lahan, wogan, đua, cigon, oan, sama, hãm, hãman, hõm, hon.
kāmp, kup, nập, pap, pasp, yāp, wup (optionally in Pluperfect), vyap, crap (optionally in Pluperfect), hap.
ader, yīr, kahar, kātsar, kāyar, kāwar, kūr, khokhar, khôr, gir, gowar, cõlhar, tsar (increase), tshar, zingar, zöngar, zozar, thahar, dar, tür, trakar, tror, thar, thậthar, thār, dar, dödar, dūr, dor, nēr, pēr, por, phahar, bahar, bãbar, bigar, mödor, mor, lyador, lor, vyąder, vyalar, vyasar, wukar, wudar, wobar, sakhar, sãgar, syandør, sīr, sõsar, hakar, hander, har, her.
al, kal, kumal, köl, khal, gāgal, gēl, grāgal, chokal, zal, tal, dyal, tambal, tēl, nil, pil, pical, pol, prazal, phậphal, bal, mamal, mõkal, wigal, wözal, wõtal, wóçal, wūl, çahal, hal, hậkal, hil, 1o1.
chiv, tshyav, zuv, nav, srav.
On Indeclinable Particles in Kāçmiri.-By G. A. Grierson,
C.I.E., PH.D., I...S.
[Read January, 1899.] Içvara-kaula does not formally deal with particles in his grammar, but here and there he refers to them, and the following is a collection of his scattered rules. It in no way pretends to be a complete account of Indeclinables.
Emphatic and indefinite particles have been described by me in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 88, and following.
The following two conjunctions are also there mentioned. They are repeated here for the sake of completeness.
a to, and (iv. 178). E.g., EF a v suh te teh, he and thou.
fa ti, also (iv. 179). It is also used instead of a to with plurals. Thus, by far qe for suh ti, tseh ti, he also, you also. Axfafa for jeg for 914 mahanivi ti gupan ti āy, both the men and the cattle came. In the last sentence we cannot use ū to.
The negative particle is a no, not (viii. ii. 19); but ordinarily negative forms of the verb are used, as described under the head of adverbial verbal suffixes. In other words, the at ne is usually compounded with the verb as a suffix. Thus, yea chu-s-no,
am not. The probibitive particle # me is only used with the Simple Imperative (viii. ii. 19).
#wcą me karin, let him not make.
Hafra ma kariv, make not ye.
G. A. Grierson - On Indeclinable Particles in Köçmiri. (No. 1,
Instead of H me and an mate, we may use HT mā and Hat mata respectively (20). Thus, At ar mā kar, har mamatā karta.
Other vocative particles may also be added. Thus, ATT *T mabā kar, मसा कर mash kar, मतवा कर्न mataba karts, मना कर्त matasa karte, and so on (20). See forms of address given in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 92 and ff.
With other tenses of the imperative a ne is used (19). Thus, alforog a karizi ne, you should not make. afrog a karizihê ne, you should not have made.
Ar mā is used before or after a verb, to indicate a question in hesitation (viïi. i. 29). Thus,
arra at karān mā chuh, or Al Fatra mā chuh karān, or
#Talia F mā karān chuh, is he making ? (I.e., see if he
he is not making it?)
E HIT bõh mā kare, shall I make ? The particle nie tāñ, or aisa tāñat, is used in asking a question, when the speaker is really in doubt as to whether there is anything to ask (viii. i. 26). Thus,
FIE Aga kyān tāñ wanun, did he say anything? Here
the speaker did not notice at the time what the man said, and afterwards recalls the fact, and, being in doubt, asks
the question ?
how much ?
Thus, alarg aga kyāh tām vạnun. 08 dyathe. This added to an interrogative word converts it into an intensive one (viii. i. 27). Thus,
ant kur, or 99 kano, when ?
77 at era dyathe kur āv, or 47 479 ara dyathe kane āv, he
he came a long time ago. I kyõh, what? 48 l dyathe kyāh, a great deal. far kūti, how many ? va fer dyathe kūti, a great many,
So v ma dyathe kan', for a long time. The usual word for 'if' is q? ay, but, with the Past Conditional (viii. ii. 33), y hay may be used instead of way, after the verb. Thus,करिहे इय
karihê hay, if he had made. atklą ve kurahặn hay, if they had made ;
afię i karihe-s hay, if he had made it. With the same tense 'if not'is represented by a nay (34). Thus, after a karihē nay, if he had made it; og ufaf rūd nay pěyihē, if rain had not fallen.
These particles can also be attached to the subject of the verb (35). Thus, gry after suh-ay karihē, if he had made ; fauna atełą tim-hay karahặn, if they had made : Gore afts su-nay karihē, if he had not made,
el bo-y khyamahā, if I had eaten.