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guess it is only a guess-that the other three margins bore the names of the other three Khalifas, Abū Bakr, 'Omar, and ‘Ali. Until better specimens come to hand, it is impossible to say whether as on the coins of Shah Jahan I.-the distinctive virtues of the Khalifas were associated with their names.
Features. The following five features merit special attention since serving to divide the coins of this series into three more or less definitely marked classes.
1. On the obverse the ghain of sil is written either with a fairly small curve containing no dots, or with a large curve bearing in its bosom a varying number of dots.
2. On the obverse over the he of the word a cross of slightly
differing forms may, or may not, be present.
3. On the obverse the re of takes an unusual upward flourish, 4. On the obverse over this strange re of
stands a leaf-like
or arrow-like ornament, thus .
5. On both the obverse and the reverse over the dal of is a
A. Early Coins, dated between the years 989 and 1000 H.,
(a) have no dots in the curve of the ghain :
(b) have (until 997 H.) no cross over on obverse:
(c) have only a moderate upward flourish of the re:
(d) have the arrow-ornament slanting to the right:
(e) have the St. Andrew's Cross tipped with dots or (later) small
circles, thus X
Pl. III. 6. 7. 8. 9.
B. Intermediate Coins, dated between the years 1000 and 1027 H., (a) have from 4 to 7 dots in the curve of ghain :
(b) have a cross, often like
over on obverse : (c) have a more elongated upward flourish of the re :
(d) have until 1020 H. the arrow slanting to the right, but after that year perpendicular :
(e) have a St. Andrew's Cross composed of closed curves Pl. III. 10. 11.
C. Late Coins, dated between the years 1215 and 1217 H.
(b) have a cross resembling an inverted tripod over on obverse:
(c) have a still more elongated upward, flourish of the re
Pl. III. 12.
From the poor specimens to hand of the coins of the latest period it is impossible to say whether the St. Andrew's Cross was present on either the obverse or the reverse.
Mint. The coins themselves supply no clue as to their place of mintage. Mr. Lane-Poole's suggestion that they are of "Gujarat fabric" is doubtless correct, if the sole implication be that these coins were struck somewhere in Gujarat. We have already seen that their distribution was practically confined within the limits of that province. But when Mr. Lane-Poole further states that "they have all the appearance of the later Kachh coins," we should be on our guard against the inference that their original home was Kachh. It is true that the coins of Kachh, and indeed of the neighbouring States of Navanagar and Porbandar in Kāṭhīāwāḍ as well, continued to bear for three centuries the name of Muzaffar (III), the last Sultan of Gujarāt, and they are in this respect analogous to the coins of Gujarāt fabric, which invariably present the name of Akbar Badshah, whether struck in his reign or in Jahāngīr's, or even two centuries later. Also in shape and size and workmanship the coins of Kachh and Kāṭhiāwāḍ do bear some resemblance to those of Gujarat fabric. But their weight-and this is perhaps the crucial test-tells decidedly against the supposition that the Gujarat fabric coins hail from some mint in Kachh or Kāṭhiāwāḍ. From the year 978 H. right on till recent times the standard coin of Kachh was the silver kori of 73 grains, bearing unchanged throughout that period the date 978. Now it is extremely improbable that any mint would be issuing at one and the same time this kori and also the Gujarāt fabric half-rupees of 85 grains, bearing as their date the varying years of issue. The kori and the rupee being incommensurable, we may safely assume that no mint would have produced both types of coin together. To have done so would have involved intolerable confusion.
This same objection applies with equal force to the assumption that the Gujarāt fabric coins issued from either Navānagar or Porbandar, for at these mints too koris were struck, all dated 978 H.
According to the Bombay Gazetteer (Vol. VIII, page 465) "a mint was established in Junagadh subsequent to the conquest of the province by the Moghal Government." But that conquest did not take place till the year 1000 H., and hence we may safely affirm that coins, such as
1 Catalogue of Indian Coins in the British Museum: the Mughal Emperors, page LXVIII.
those of the Gujarāt fabric, struck in the name of Akbar as early as 989 H. did not issue from that Mint.
If, however, in our quest for the home of these coins we may turn to the mainland of Gujarat rather than to the peninsular portion of that province, Surat may well claim our attention. This city, when conquered by Akbar in 981 H., was a port of the first rank, having subordinate to it the ports of Rander, Gandevi, and Valsāḍ. Rejecting, as we safely may, the strange rupee No. 137 of the Lahor Museum Coin Catalogue, provisionally assigned by the late Mr. Rodgers to Sūrat, it was not till 1032 H. that the first of the ordinary Mughal coins issued from this mint. The latest I can trace (excluding, of course, the East India Company's Sūrat rupees) is of the year 1197 H. Thus between 1032 and 1197 H. this mint was more or less active in producing coins of the well-known Mughal type. May it not be that prior to 1032 H.— and thus from 989 till 1027 H.-the coins of Gujārāt fabric issued from this mint? In that case they were about 1030 H. merely superseded by the larger and finer Mughal coins, which latter continued in favour till the end of the 12th century. Why the former type of cointhe Gujarāt fabric-was revived in 1215 and continued till 1217, I am at a loss to explain. It is, however, noteworthy that in 1215 H. the English, on assuming the undivided Government of Surat, assigned onefifth of the revenues of the city to the brother of the late Nawab. May it have been he who re-issued the Gujarat fabric coins? Also in 1217 H. by the treaty of Bassein the Peshwa ceded his share of Sūrat to the English, who henceforward held sole control over the district. Was it on this account that the issue of these coins from the Sūrat mint now ceased ?
Evidently from the description here given of the coins of this series the main questions that still await an answer are three-What do the margins read? What was the place of mintage? And why the reissue of 1215-1217 H. ? GEO. P. Taylor.
15. Mr. Framjee Jāmasjee Thanawālā of Bombay has sent for publication the following rare coins of the Mughal Emperors.
1. Jahangir. R. One-eighth of a rupee. Weight, 20 grs.
Mint. Ahmadnagar. Size 4"
نگر Below all the word
Pl. III. 13.
There can be no hesitation in ascribing this coin to the mint Ahmadnagar, one of the principal towns in the province of Aurangābad. It follows in type the rupees of that Mint published in the Lahore Museum Catalogue No. 35, p. 134.
2. Aurangzeb. R. One-sixteenth of a rupee. Weight 10-5 grs.
Obverse. Portions of the usual legend.
او رنگ زیب Date in 3 of
Reverse. Portions of the usual legend; with the name of the mint at the top of the coin. Cf. No. 702 figured in the British Museum Catalogue.
Aurangzeb. R. A quarter of a rupee. Weight 44 grs. Size '6'
Mint. Bijapur dāru-z-zafar.
Portions of usual legends.
Cf. British Museum Cat. No. 717.
4. Kambakhsh. R. Weight 175 grs. Size .9"
Mint. Nurgal or Nürkal.
ضرب نور كل
Pl. III. 14.
This mint has been known for some years, but has not been published. Its issues are so far confined to the reigns of Aurangzeb and his son Kambakhsh and Farrukhsiyar. Of Aurangzeb three coins are known-one in the cabinet of Dr. Taylor, two in my own. The present coin is the only one found of Kambakhsh of this mintage, and Dr. Taylor has an unique specimen of the reign of Farrukhsiyar. To Dr. Taylor is due the identification of the mint with "Nurgal," apparently also
called "Nurkal," the chief town of a sarkar of that name in the province of Bījāpūr, vide "India of Aurangzeb," by B. Jādunāth Sirkār, pp. lxxxix, xci and 154. Kambakhsh was made governor of the ṣubahs of Bijapur and Ḥaidarābād by his brother Shāh 'Alam Bahādur, and his coins struck at those places have been published. It is therefore not surprising to find him striking coins at the headquarters of one of his sarkārs, and this makes the reading more probable than that of Toragal, a suggestion made to me some years ago by Dr. Codrington. 5. Jahāndār. R. Weight 173 grains. •9"
Obverse. Portions of the usual legend
در افاق زد سکه چون مهروماه ا والفتح غازي جهاندار شاه
in three lines-the Hijri year to the right of the cen-
Pl. III. 15.
This is quite a new Mughal mint name and its locality is
6. Farrukhsiyar. R. Weight 176 grains. Size 85"
Date 1127-4th regnal year.
J. 1. 31
سنه احد جلوس