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terms from Sayyad Husain 'Ali Khan four years before. But Nāhar Khan was an intimate friend of the two Sayyads, and his first efforts were directed to bringing over Ajit Singh to their side, and detaching him from that of Farrukhsiyar. In this he was fully successful. The Rājah started from Jodhpur for Dihli, and the Emperor was overjoyed at the prospect of his arrival. These hopes were, however, doomed to disappointment, for Ajit Singh had not the least intention of taking that side; on the contrary, his mind was fully made up to espouse the cause of the Sayyads.1

On the 4th Shawwal 1130 H. (30th August, 1718), when Rajah Ajit Singh's arrival near Bagh Malhan Shah was reported, I'tiqād Khān (Muḥammad Murad) was sent with the present of a dagger, and Ṣamṣāmud-daulah was deputed as an escort. These men were commissioned to impress on the Rajah the high favour in which he stood with His Majesty, and by persuasive talk induce him to present himself in audience without the intervention of Qutb-ul-mulk. I'tiqād Khān, after delivering the gifts with which he had been entrusted, told the Rajah that he was too great a man to need another person to introduce him, he should present himself in audience the next day, and he would be received. He could then lay his own representations before the throne. In reply the Rajah, after using many similar flattering professions, announced his intention of obtaining audience through Qutb-ul-mulk. In vain I'tiqād Khan displayed all his eloquence, he could not turn the Rajah from his purpose. It is said that this was the result of Qutb-ulmulk's advice, conveyed through Nahar Khan and others. They had frightened the Rajah into the belief that Farrukhsiyar's word could not be relied upon. By what vows and oaths, they said, had he not bound himself in the case of Asad Khan and his son, only to lure them into the net! The Sayyads, they added, are the only men who can stand up against such a sovereign, or whose support is of any value.

When his emissaries returned and reported their ill-success, Farrukhsiyar flew into a passion. But unable to help himself, he sent a message to Qutb-ul-mulk that the next day was appointed for the reception of Rajah Ajit Singh, and that he, too, should present himself at darbār. The Rajah had written that unless the minister attended he would not come.

The next day, the 5th Shawwal (31st August, 1718), I'tiqād Khān and Şamṣam-ud-daulah set out once more, and brought the Rajah to

1 Mīrzā Muḥammad, 383. Surman Diary, 3rd January 1717 0.8. [14th January 1718 N.S.-12th Şafar 1130]: "Naar Cawne [sent] to bring Raja Adjet San to Court." • Mirza Muḥammad, 386, Kāmwar Khān, 180.


the audience hall. Qutb-ul-mulk was present. On reaching the outer gate, Rajah Ajit Singh declined to advance further until he was certain of the presence of the wazir. It was only after repeated assurances that he consented to enter the palace. When he reached the door of the Diwan-i-'am he halted, and said that until Qutb-ul-mulk came to him there, he would not advance another step. Samṣām-ud-daulah convinced him that Qutb-ul-mulk would come, but the spot fixed for him to appear was further on. They moved on to the door of the Diwan-i-khās. Again the Rajah halted. Here Qutb-ul-mulk appeared and the two men greeted each other most effusively. The Nawab then took the Rajah by the hand and conducted him to the presence. Farrukhsiyar, though far from pleased with his conduct, appeared hypocritically gracious and conferred the usual khila't and other presents.

For twenty days neither the wazir nor the Rajah re-appeared at darbār. In this interval the Rajah visited Qutb-ul-mulk only once or twice, and the Nawab went once to him. But secret agents were constantly passing to and fro between them, and these men used every effort to strengthen the alliance. As the differences between the Emperor and his minister had now become public, Farrukhsiyar, instigated by I'tiqād Khān, took what measures he could to win the day. On his side, too, Qutb-ul-mulk drew aside the veil, and refused to appear in audience. As soon as he found that the Nawab and the Rajah were one, Farrukhsiyar returned to the idea of a reconciliation. For several days in succession I'tiqād Khan (Muḥammad Murād) visited them with proposals for peace and concord. It leaked out, however, that Qutb-ulmulk placed no reliance on I'tiqād Khān's word, holding him to be a stirrer-up of strife. The negociations were therefore transferred to Afzal Khān, the Sadr-uş-şadur, but with equal want of good result. Sarbuland Khān and Ṣamṣām-ud-daulah's services were next enlisted (22nd Shawwal, 17th September 1718), although they were suspected of infidelity to the Emperor. But the final destruction of Qutb-ul-mulk was as firmly resolved on as ever. The command of the artillery, of which the assistance would be absolutely necessary, was in the hands of Sayyad Şalābat Khān, a man well affected to Şamṣām-ud-daulah, whose loyalty was now doubted. This command was taken away, and given on the 22nd Shawwal (17th September, 1718) to Ghāzi-ud-din Khān, Ghalib Jang, who could be relied on as having no sort of connection with the Sayyads or Samṣām-ud-daulah ; nay, he might be accounted their enemy, for owing to the scanty favour that they had shown him, he was living in poverty, in spite of his mansab of 7,000 zat.1

1 Mirza Muḥammad, 390, Kāmwar Khan, 181.

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After Sarbuland Khan and Şamṣām-ul-daulah had been entrusted with the task of assuaging the anger of Qutb-ul-mulk, they succeeded by smooth speeches and plausible arguments in bringing him, to some extent, into a more reasonable frame of mind. He agreed to appear once more in darbār. It was faithfully promised that there should never again be anything to disturb his mind, or arouse differences of opinion. Rajah Ajit Singh having also absented himself, the wazir advised that he also should be conciliated, and that they should be brought to darbār together. This was accordingly done and the Rājah propitiated. On the 26th Shawwal, 1130 H. (21st September, 1718), Rajah Ajit Singh repaired to the wazir's house. Sarbuland Khan and Şamṣām-ud-daulah came on behalf of His Majesty, and requested that the two nobles might mount and set out. The two envoys, mounted on one elephant, preceded them to the palace. Qutb-ul-mulk and Rājah Ajit Singh followed, riding upon one elephant. Speeches full of apparent peace and goodwill were interchanged, outwardly all cause of quarrel between the parties had been removed, and at the wazir's request the country of Bikaner was conferred upon the Rajah. But acute observers likened the situation to the well-known description of an hour-glass:

"They are joined together like an hour-glass,
Hearts full of dust and faces all clear."1


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Şamṣām-ud-daulah was suspected of treachery, I'tiqad Khan's talk came to nothing, Sarbuland Khan had become lukewarm, Ajit Singh, false to his salt, had gone over to Qutb-ul-mulk! Who was there left? Farrukhsiyar thought now of Nizām-ul-mulk, then faujdār of Murādābād, and sent a farmān recalling him to Court, in the hope that from him deliverance might come. Nizām-ul-mulk crossed the Jamnah towards the end of Shawwal and camped near Khizrābād.3 Nawāb Sādāt Khān, father-in-law of the Emperor, went out to meet him (29th Shawwal 1130 H., 24th September, 1728) and escorted him to the presence Farrukhsiyar now made overtures to Nizam-ul-mulk. But at the same

1 Shiū Dās, 19a.

Cūn shīshah-i-sa'at and, paiwastah ba-ham,

Dilha hamah pur-i-ghabār, wa rūhā hamah ṣāf.

Chabar, literally, "dust," metaphorically, "ill-will, vexation." Mirzā Muḥammad, 392, Kāmwar Khan, 181-2.

2 For his appointment to Murādābād see back, Section 21.

3 Kāmwar Khān says the camp was near the 'Idgah. The two places are not very far apart.

time, as he was greatly afraid of the Sayyads, he bound the Nawab to disclose nothing, until one of the men devoted to his cause had removed Qutb-ul-mulk out of their way. Nizam-ul-mulk saw plainly enough that on these conditions the enterprize was hopeless, and therefore amused the Emperor with procrastinating words, without committing himself. Day after day passed until Farrukhsiyar despaired of assistance in this direction. A few months afterwards (16th Safar 1131 H., 7th January, 1719), Farrukhsiyar, in his heedless, short-sighted way, finally alienated Nizam-ul-mulk by removing him from his appointment in Chaklah Murādābād, which was then erected into a Subah and conferred on the favourite I'tiqad Khan (Muḥammad Murad).1


We have already told how in 1128 H. (March, 1716) Mir Jumlah was exiled first to Sihrind and then to Lahor. He had never abandoned hope of a return to Court, but Farrukhsiyar was too frightened of the Sayyads to accord his consent. At length, the Emperor, having screwed up his courage to the sticking place, recalled Mir Jumlah. As soon as Qutb-ul-mulk learnt this, he sent to ask Farrukhsiyar why, if there was no quarrel left between them, he should have sent for Mir Jumlah. Frightened at this remonstrance, Farrukhsiyar cancelled his first order. But Mir Jumlalı, directly he had received the farman, had started on his return, and paying no attention whatever to the second order, hurried on by forced marches. Knowing what anger would be aroused in Qutb-ul-mulk's breast by Mir Jumlah's arrival, Farrukhsiyar despatched Shahbaz Khan, Qul,3 to turn him back wherever he might be found. Even this measure was powerless to arrest his course. However, as Mir Jumlah perceived that, out of fear of the Wazir, Farrukhsiyar would decline to see him, he decided to give himself out as an adherent of the Sayyads. Accordingly he went straight to Qutb-ul-mulk's house, 5th Zā,l Qā'dah (29th September, 1718). Farrukhsiyar, overpowered by anger, took away Mir Jumlah's rank and gave orders to resume the mansion, known as Asad Khan's, which had been granted him, and conferred it upon Samṣām-ud-daulah. Energetic men were sent with orders to remove him from the house of Qutb-ul-mulk to that of the late Fidãe Khan. Qutb-ul mulk was much enraged at this action, and the ill-will which had been hidden under a pretended reconciliation, was now again shown openly. The Wazir wrote (5th Zu,1 Qa'dah, 29th

1 Shiū Dās 18b, (copy of Farman), Mīrzā Muḥammad, 401.

2 Section 22.

3 Qul, Turkish for slave.

September, 1718) to his brother, Husain 'Ali Khan, requesting him to leave the Dakhin at once and return to Dihli. In his letter, after referring to the enemies who had obtained the ear of His Majesty, he recounts the story of Jai Singh, Sawae's, campaign against Curā, Jat, and the quarrel arising from its termination, his fear of assassination, and his measures to collect additional troops. There is no doubt that Qutb-ul-mulk's fears for his personal safety were not unfounded. For instance, on the 29th Shawal (24th September, 1718), when he was seated in the office of the Diwan engaged in signing documents, spies brought him word that an outbreak was planned, whereupon he called hurriedly for a palki, and was carried home.1

One of the strange occurrences of this time, one remaining quite unexplained, was the sudden appearance in the imperial audience hall, on the 11th Shawwal (6th September, 1718), of a man who took his seat on the marble platform, the place where the khawaş or pages stand, and made three salāms or reverences, with his sword. When told by the carpet-spreaders and guards to desist, he drew his sword and attacked them, whereupon one of the guards dispatched him with his dagger. No one knew who he was or what his object had been. His body was made over to the Kotwal,3

When Farrukhsiyar heard that Husain 'Ali Khan had been written to, he sent off Şamṣām-ud-daulah to allay the Wazir's apprehensions. On the 6th Z,ul Qa'dah (30th September, 1718) he went out hunting, and on his way home sent a message that he was about to honour Qutbul-mulk with a visit. It so happened that Rajah Ajit Singh had been told of a plot made by Farrukhsīyar to seize him, when he, as in duty bound, should come out to the door of his house, to make obeisance at the time of the Emperor's passing by. This may have had no other foundation than in the Rajah's evil conscience, for, as Khāfi Khān says, it is a proverb that: "The faithless are full of fear."3 In any case the fact remains that Ajit Singh sought that day a refuge with Qutb-ul-mulk. As soon as the Emperor heard of the Rajah's presence, he countermanded his orders, and sent Sayyad Najm-ud-din 'Ali Khan to say, that if that base-born pig had not been at the Wazir's house, he would have paid him a visit. On the arrival of the boat (nawārah)* opposite the 1 Kāmwar Khān, 182; Mirzā Muḥammad, 404, is a little different. Mirzā Muḥammad, 385, Shiū Dās, 17b (copy of letter to Husain 'Ali Khān.)

• Kamwar Khan, 181.

8 Al-kha, in kha'if.

4 Nawarah, these boats were fashioned into fanciful shapes such as wild animals, etc. They were roofed in at one end, which was covered with broad cloth ; they were better finished and lighter than a common boat (kishtë). The boatmen

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