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post of danger in Malwah, now arrived near the city. In the preceding year he had received orders to clear the Malwah province from an incursion of the Mahrattas, but owing to the delay he made, for objects of his own, he fell under the imperial displeasure, was removed from the office of Second Bakhshi, and exiled from Court as permanent governor of Mālwah. From that time he had been employed in his new province. In the interval Farrukhsiyar, pursuing his endeavours to destroy the Sayyads, had recourse first to I'tiqād Khan and then to Sarbuland Khan. Despairing of them, he turned next to Ajit Singh, who went over at once to the opposite side. Nizām-ul-mulk was next appealed to. Seeing clearly the Emperor's want of firmness, he declined to undertake the business himself, but continued to favour the idea and to give advice. Some say that on his suggestion his cousin, Muḥammad Amin Khan, was recalled. No doubt, if Nizām-ulmulk and Muḥammad Amin Khan, could have believed in the truth of the promises made to them, and had been properly supported; in all probability the two Sayyads would have been uprooted easily enough. But Farrukhsiyar was a prey to unreasoning terrors, and he could never come to any firm resolve.1

When the rumours of Husain 'Ali Khan's intended return to Court were confirmed, Muḥammad Amin Khan knew not what course to adopt. His force was not strong enough to enable him to throw himself across the Nawab's route and block his way. To openly evade a meeting would leave an indelible stain on his reputation for courage. Luckily, the order came for his return to Court and he set out at once.* In the meantime Farrukhsiyar came to the conclusion that he could never oust the Sayyads, and seeing no other way of escape tried to make friends with them. By this time Muhammad Amin Khān had marched back as far as Āgrahı. Qutb-ul-mulk thereupon remarked that as his Majesty had no longer any distrust of him, why or wherefore had he recalled Muḥammad Amin Khan? Farrukhsiyar, frightened that there would be trouble, sent off urgent orders to Muḥammad Amin Khan directing his return to Mālwah. As this order did not suit that noble's plans he disobeyed it, and leaving his baggage in Agrah, he made forced marches towards Dihli. On the 20th Safar (11th January, 1719) he was at Barahpulah, a few miles to the south of the city.

On learning of Muhammad Amin Khan's arrival, Qutb-ul-mulk

1 Mirzā Muḥammad, 433.

≈ Khāfĩ Khān, II, 802, on the other hand, asserts that he left Mälwah without orders and without permission.

said to His Majesty: "It seems that the servants of the State have "made disobedience of orders a habit. To such an extent is this the "case that, in spite of renewed orders to retrace his steps, Muḥammad "Amin Khan has not discontinued his advance to the capital." Farrukhsiyar was put out at this complaint, and answered: "Have you anyone you can send to turn him back?" The wazir then sent Rājah Ratn Cand to persuade Muḥammad Amin to return to his government under pain of the imperial displeasure. Muḥammad Amin Khān used strong language, even in the Rajah's presence, and utterly refused to obey. The Rajah reported this state of things to the 'minister. Qutb-ul-mulk, with much heat, repeated the matter to the Emperor, and caused him to become angry. Muḥammad Amin Khan was deprived of his rank (manṣab), and his revenue assignments (jāgīrs) were attached. Qutb-ul-mulk considered that the stars in their courses were fighting for him, when the Emperor had been estranged from such a high-placed and valiant noble. Forthwith he set to work to make his own peace with Muḥammad Amin, and in two or three days obtained from the Emperor permission for him to enter the city, sending out his own brother Najm-ud-din ‘Ali Khān, and Zafar Khan to escort him to his home. This took place on the 29th Safar (20th January). The incident turned Muḥammad Amin Khan's heart from Farrukhsiyar, and made him friendly to the cause of the Sayyads, at least to the extent of securing his neutrality.

At this point a few other changes may be noted. As a consequence of Muḥammad Amin Khan's loss of favour, the office of paymaster to the Aḥadīs was taken from his son, Qamr-ud-din Khān, and given to Zafar Khan, Turrah, on the 1st Rabi' I. 1131 H. (21st January, 1719). Then, 'Inayatullah Khan, with whom Qutb-ul-mulk was displeased for his refusal to bow before the authority of Rājah Ratn Cand, lost his appointment of Diwān. But as Farrukhsiyar believed in this man's honesty, he was not kept altogether out of employ, but transferred to the post of khānsāmān, or Lord Steward, on the 3rd Rabi' I. 1131 H. (23rd January, 1719). The Diwānship of the Tan (assigned revenues) was made over to Rājah Bakht Mal, a protēgē of Muḥammad Yār Khān; as for the Exchequer or Khalişah, Qutb-ul-mulk was told to carry on the duties till someone else was nominated, 4th Rabi' I. 1131 H. (24th January, 1719).1


Husain 'Ali Khan was approaching nearer and nearer to Dilhi.

1 Mirzā Muḥammad, 443.

He left Burhanpur on the 22nd Muharram 1131 H. (14th December, 1718) and Ujjain on the 4th Safar1 (26th December, 1718), having crossed the Narbada by the Akbarpur ferry. The embassy of Ikhlag Khan, who had met him near Māndū, had been unsuccessful in arresting his march. Then by letters from Barqandāz Khan, faujdār of Gwaliyār, and from his own agent at Court, he heard of the renewal of friendly intercourse on the 26th Muharram 1131 H. (18th December, 1718), between the Emperor and Qutb-ul-mulk. Publicly, he received

the news with the remark that if His Majesty had no longer ill-will to them, they had no other object left than to serve him loyally; after he had seen the Emperor and settled certain matters, he would return to the Dakhin without delay. The Dakhin officials, on leaving Aurangābād, had been told that they would be dismissed at the Fardapur pass; on reaching that pass, they were ordered to come on to Burhanpur. At Burhanpur, much to their disgust, their continued attendance was enjoined. Thus, when the news of a return march to the Dakhin spread from tent to tent throughout the camp, all men received it with joy and looked forward to speedily seeing their homes again. But, in a day or two, persons in the confidence of Husain ‘Ali Khān divulged the fact that privately he had expressed the opinion that this was only a new plot hatched by Farrukhsiyar, that it was absurd on the face of it; had they never heard the saying: "When was a secret kept if it was told in an assembly?" A wise man could perceive the only possibly result, namely, if they fell into the clutches of the Emperor, their lives would be forfeited; but if they get hold of him, his escape was hopeless.?

All this time the supposed prince was surrounded and guarded with the greatest care. An elephant with rich trappings was set apart for him, and he rode in a canopied seat with the curtains drawn on all four sides, so that no one could see or recognize him. A separate division of the army was told off to escort him, and surrounded his elephant on every side. He was accorded the state and dignity of an imperial prince, men of rank stood on watch all night round his quarters; and on the march, two men sat behind the canopy waving fans of peacock feathers.8

When they came to the Rana of Udepur's country, some villages and a great deal of sugar-cane were plundered by the *men of the army. Soon afterwards a brahman sent by the Rānā

1 Khāfi Khan says the 14th, but Mirza Muḥammad, a more precise writer, gives the 4th. The report reached Dihli on the 29th (20th January, 719).

2 Mirzā Muḥammad, 433, Khāfi Khan, II., 799, 800.

8 Shiū Dās, 20a.

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arrived with presents and cash. Strict orders were then issued to refrain from injuring the crops. On the contrary, when they passed into the lands of Rajah Jai Singh Sawae, the offering brought by one of his principal officers was refused, while many villages with their crops and cattle were pillaged by the camp followers. Even the women and children of the cultivators were looked on as lawful plunder and carried off.1

Another effort was now made by Farrukhsiyar, on the 1st Rabi' I., 11312 H. (21st, January, 1719) to conciliate Husain 'Ali Khăn through 'Abd-ul-ghafúr. This man was married to a sister of I'tiqad Khān's (Muḥammad Murad's) wife. Early in this reign he had joined Ḥusain ‘Ali Khān, was admitted to his intimacy, and made the confidant of his secrets. When his brother-in-law rose into favour, he asked permission from Ḥusain ‘Ali Khān and returned to Court. Through I'tiqād Khān he was made a Dūhazāri (2,000). He was now promoted to 2 500 zāt with a standard, and deputed to interview Husain 'Ali Khān, his former friend. By this time even Farrukhsiyar's intimates began to despair of him. Amin-ud-din wrote: "The complexion of affairs "changes here daily, fickleness prevails, sense is absent, and every "moment oue futile device is succeeded by another. It reminds one of "the fable of the mice and the cat. In a deserted spot there were many mice, and every day the cat came and took two or three of "them. The mice met in council and resolved to hang a bell to the "cat's neck, so that having warning they might flee in time. The bell was got. But who was there able to attach it to the cat's neck ?" Farrukhsiyar's projects were of this sort, from which nothing but failure could result. He is represented as still believing that the storm would blow over as it had done before. He did not seem to see that "to heal an estranged heart was as hard as to mend a broken glass," and advice was thrown away upon him.3

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When 'Abd-ul-ghafür had started, Farrukhsiyar recollected that for a long time past Qutb-ul-mulk had urged that, until the office of Daroghah or Superintendent of the Privy Audience had been made over to one of his brothers, he and his brother could not feel themselves safe. As Husain 'Ali Khan's arrival grew nearer, the Emperor felt sure he would make the same request, nay, would never come to an audience till it had been granted. But if such an appointment were made, Şamṣām-ud-daulah would be ousted. He had long taken Farrukh

1 Khāfi Kḥān, II., 803. ́

2 Mīrzā Muḥammad, 443, says it was on the 4th.
8 Kāmwar Khan, 187, Dastür-ul-Inshā, 30.

siyar's side, and though lately he had fallen out of favour, his public disgrace was not desired. Accordingly on the 10th Rabi' I. (30th January, 1719) he was consoled with the place of 2nd Bakhshi, from which Islam Khan was ejected. Samṣām-ud-daulah's duties as deputy of Husain ‘Ali Khan, the first Bakhshi, were transferred to Zafar Khan, Turrah, who was friendly with the Sayyads, and at the same time professed to be zealous for the Emperor. He made all the efforts he could to bring the parties to an agreement. For his attempts to keep friends with everybody he was described, Khafi Khan says, as "the ingredient in every dish."l Sayyad Salabat Khan succeeded Zafar Khan as fonrth Bakhshi.2

Sarbulaud Khan had lately been appointed to Kabul, but was still discontented. To appease him the Emperor ordered Qutb-ul-mulk to visit him. This visit took place on the 9th Rabi' I. (29th January, 1719), I'tiqad Khan accompanying the wazir. Sarbuland Khan on the 13th moved out as far as the Salt Market on his way to Kabul. Three days afterwards he was visited, by express orders, by Mahārājah Ajīt Singh and Maharão Bhim Singh. Then at Sarae Mihr Parwar, nine kos from the city, 3 he halted and awaited the course of events.4

Another new appointment, made on the 18th Rabi' I. 1131 H. (7th February, 1719), was that of Nizam-ul-mulk to the province of 'Azimabad-Paṭnah in place of Khān Zāmāu Khān. From the first up to this time Nizam-ul-mulk had never asked a favour from Qutb-ul-mulk or his brother, and had even refrained from visiting them. On many occasions, during these troubles, he had urged on Farrukhsiyar the uprooting of the Sayyads as the best course he could pursue. On this account the two brothers were far from well disposed towards him. But now Farrukhsiyar, in a state of mortal fright, had placed himself completely in the hands of the two brothers. Under these altered circumstances, it was to the Emperor's interest to put an end to the quarrels and ill-feeling among the nobles, and he urged Qutb-ul-mulk to take the first step in making friends with Nizam-ul-mulk. This reconciliation falling in with Qutb-ul-mulk's own ideas, on the 18th Rabi' I. (7th February, 1719) accompanied by two of his sister's sons, Sayyad Ghairat Khān

1 Nakhud-i-hamah ash, "the pea in every plât" (Khāfi Khan, II., 806), a proverbial saying applied to a busybody, Roebuck, 419.

Mirzā Muḥanimad, 444.

8 Sarae Mihr Parwar is not marked on the Indian Atlas; it must have been between Narelah and Sonpat, perhaps near Akbarpur Barotah. Miskin, B.M. Oriental, No. 1918, fol. 67a, mentions it as lying ten kos from Dihli.

♦ Mīrzā Muḥammad, 445, Muḥammad Qāsim, Lāhorī, 248,

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