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Kalhaņa. King Jalauka had built at Srinagari his shrine of Jyestharudra whose original place of worship was at Bhūteśvara, below Mount Haramukuța. He then wished to have by the side of the new shrine also the Sodara spring which adjoins the site of Bhūtesvara. To fulfil the king's pious desire “there broke forth from a waterless spot a spring which was alike to Sodara in colour, taste and other respects.” A golden cup thrown into the original Sod:ra spring appeared after two and half days in its Avatāra near Srinagari. This miracle removed all doubts as to their identity.

Close to the mosque of Sudarabal and by the lake shore are two pools fed by perennial springs. These according to a local tradition were in old times visited by numerous pilgrims. Now all recollection of this Tirtha has been lost among the Brahmans of Srinagar. But the name of a portion of the village area, Bat! por, points to a former settlement of Battas or Purohitas. It is curious, too, that we find only half a mile from the village the Ziārat of Hazrat Bal, perhaps the most popular of all Muhammadan shrines in the Valley. It is supposed to be built over the remains of the miracle-working Pir Dastagir Şāhib. Is it possible that the presence of this rather ubiquitous saint at this particular spot had something to do with the earlier Hindu Tirtha ?


105. Our circuit through the Phākh Pargana has brought us back to the purlieus of the capital. · We must leave them now once more and start on our tour through the outlying districts. We may direct it first to the upper half of the Valley, the ancient Madavarājya. This again is divided by the Vitastā into two portions, one to the north and east, the other to the south and west of the river. We shall begin with the Parganas on the right bank, starting from Srinagar.

The Pargana which adjoins Srinagar from the south-east, is now District of Khadūvi.

known as Vihi. It extends from near Purāņā

dhişthāna to the spur of Vastarvan, near Vant'por (Avantipura), and comprises a wide semi-circnlar tract of fertile Karēwa lands. In ancient times the district took its name from the village of Khapūvi, the present Khruv.? The Dāmaras of the Khadūvā district are repeatedly mentioned by Kalhaņa along with those of Holadā, the modern Vular Pargana.

1 For Sodara, the present Nārān Nag, see notes i. 123 ; v. 55-59. % Compare Rājat, viii. 733 note.

The site of Pāndrēthan or Purāņādhişthāna has already been fully noticed. About two miles higher up the river lies Pānd chuk village, with some ancient remains and the traces of a stone bridge-head, probably of late date. The old name of the place is unknown. We pass next by the river the village of Simpôr. This may retain the name of SINHAPURA, founded by King Jayasimha in Kalhaņa's time.!

Less than two miles to the north-west of Simpõr lies the village of Zevan, the ancient JAYAVANA. It was correctly identified already by Prof. Bühler on the basis of the happy and exact description given of it by Bilhaņa. The poet mentions in this "place of high-rising monuments” the “pool filled with pure water, sacred to Taksaka, lord of snakes." This pool still exists in the Takşaka Nāga which is visited annually by the pilgrims to Harşeśvara.

The mention made by Kalhaņa in his history of Narapura of the pilgrimage to the Takşaka spring proves that in old times it must have enjoyed great reputation as a separate Tirtha. It is in fact the only Kasmir Nāga which is distinctly mentioned in the Tirtha list of the Mahābhārata (iii. lxxxii. 90). Abū-l-Fazl records the interesting fact that this spring was populary held to be the place whence the cultivation of saffron flourishing in this neighbourhood originated. In Akbar's time the cultivators, undoubtedly Muhammadans, still worshipped at this fountain at spring time. It was customary to pour cow's milk into it to secure a good omen for the success of the crop. We see that the Takşaka Nāga long retained his importance with the cultivators as a local divinity. About two miles to the north-east of Zevan we come on gently

rising ground to the village of Khun.moh. It Khonamuşa.

is, as already stated above, the ancient KHONAMUŞA, famous as the birthplace of Bilbaņa. The latter in the Vikramān. kadevacarita gives an enthusiastic description of the charms of his rural home. The saffron fields which Bilhana mentions extend close to the lower of the two separate hamlets which form the village. In the upper hamlet is a sacred spring called Dāmodaranāga with some sculptured funeral Stêlês and a few fragmentary inscriptions.

On the hill-side above the village issues another Nāga which under

I See Rajat. viii. 2443 note.

Compare Report, pp. 5 89:; Rūjat, vii. 607 note ; Vikram. xviii, 70. 3 See Rājat, i. 220 note. * See Āin-i-Akb., ii. p. 358.

6 For a detailed and accurate account of the position and remains of Khonamuşa, see Prof. Böller's Report, pp. 5 sq. The identity of Khanemoh with the Khonamuşa of Rajat. i, 90, was first pointed out by Gen. CUNNINGHAM, Anc, Geogr., p. 98.

the name of Bhuvanesvari is visited on the pilgrimage to HARŞEŠVARA, The latter Tirtha lies on the summit of the high ridge which rises to the north of the village. It consists of a 'Svayambhū’ Linga situated in a small cave and enjoys considerable popularity. I have not been able to trace its name except in the local Māhātmya and the Tirthasamgraha. The chief place of the Vihi Pargana is now the town of Pāmpar,

the ancient PADMAPURA, about four miles southPadmapura.

west of Khun’moh.' It was founded in the beginning of the 9th century by Padma, the powerful uncle of the puppet king Cippața-Jayāpīļa. Padma is said by the Chronicle to have also built a temple of Vişņu Padmasvāmin. To this may possibly belong the scanty remains of an ancient temple which have been described by General Cunningham. Close by is the Ziarat of Mir Muḥammad Hamadāni, with some fine ancient columns and ornamented slabs which are likely to have been taken from this temple. Also the other Ziārats of the town show similar remains. Padmapura, owing to its central position in a fertile tract, seems to have always been a place of importance and is often mentioned by Kalhaņa and the later Chroniclers.

Proceeding north-eastwards of Padmapura we pass first Baldhöm, a large village, which in the Lokaprakāśa and Tirthasamgraha figures as Bālāśrama. Under a large Deodar near it Bālādevi is now worshipped in the form of an old stone-image. Numerous ancient Stêlês, showing miniature reproductions of temples, are found in the neighbouring rivulets and canals; they were apparently used in recent times as stepping-stones which would account for their preservation. At the foot of a rocky spur which descends from the mountain-range to the north, lies the picturesque village of Uyan, once mentioned by Kalhaņa under the name of OvanĀ.3 It has a large sulphurous spring visited by the sick.

About two miles further east we reach the large village of Khruv, the ancient KhadŪVI which,, as we have seen, gave to the district its former name. There is an abundance of fine springs in and about Khruv; Abū-l-Fazl mentions them as objects of worship and estimates their number at 360. Above the village a so-called Svayambhū-cakra or mystical diagram is shown on a rock. It is held sacred to Jvālā. mukhi-Durgā and largely visited by pilgrims. I am, however, unable to trace any old reference to this Tirtha. Only a mile to the south-east of Khruv is the village of Sār, until

| For a detailed notice see Rajat. iv. 695 note. The old name of the place is well-known to Srinagar Paņạits ; Vigne too, Travels, ii. p. 31, recognized it correctly.

% See J. A. S. B., 1848, p. 274.
3 See Rajat. vii. 295.
4. Ain-i-Akb., ii. p. 358.

6 Compare for such diagrams, algo designated Devicakra or Mätrcakra, Rājat. i. 122 note.

recently the seat of a flourishing iron-industry. Sanāra.

Kalhaņa mentions it by the name of SANĀRA as an Agrahāra founded by King Sacinara. I Whatever the historical value of this notice may be, which Kalhaņa took from Padmamibira, the evidence detailed in my note on the passage proves that the present S'ār is intended. An intermediate form of the name is preserved in the Snär of an old gloss. The Ziārat of Khwāja Khiềr which stands here near several small springs, is built with remains of a Hindu temple ; among them is a Liiga-base some six feet square.

About two miles south-west of Sār are found the well-preserved ruins of a temple near the village of Lailu (not marked on Survey map). They have been described by Bishop Cowie, ' but I am unable to trace any old reference to this shrine in the texts I have examined. It is remarkable for having a circular cella, the only one known to ine in Kaśmir. A small square cella to the east of this temple has been annexed to a neighbouring Ziārat.

Near the south end of the Vihi Pargana and on the river lies the village of Latpūr. An old gloss of the Rājatarangiņi identifies it with LALITAPURA, a place founded in honour of King Lalitāditya by his architect. The King according to the Chronicle was not pleased with the attention ; in any case no importance seems to have attached to this place. There are no old remains above ground, but the local tradition still tells of King 'Lalitādit' as the founder of a large town on the neighbouring Udar. 106. Passing round the foot of Mount Vastarvan we enter the

Pargana of Vular, the ancient HOLADĀ. This District of Holaďā;

identification is supported, apart from the Avantipura.

clear phonetic evidence, by all passages of the Rājatarangiņi which mention Holadā. Its feudal barons played a great part in the troubled times of the later Hindu reigns.

Its most important place in old times was undoubtedly the towu of AVANTIPURA, founded by King Avantivarman (A.D. 855-883). Its position is marked by the present village of Vāntipor on the Vitastā. The

I See note i. 100.
% See J. A. S. B., 1866, pp. 97 sqq.
3 See Rājat. iv. 186.
4 See Rajat. i. 306 note.

6 See Rūjat. v. 45 sq. note. Its identity with Vāntipõr was first pointed out by Dr. Wilson in his note on Moorcroft, Travels, ii. p. 241.

conspicuous ruins of this place attracted already the attention of the early European visitors. General Cunningham did not fail to recognize in them the remains of the two great temples of Avantisvāmin and Avantīśvara which Avantivarman bad built here. Of the two great ruins one is at Vantipõr itself, the other and larger one half a mile further down the river close to the hamlet of Jaubrăr (map. Jabair.') Owing to the complete destruction of the central shrines it is impossible to ascertain now which was dedicated to Vişnu and which to Siva. The fine enclosing quadrangles of the temples have also suffered badly. That of Avantisvāwin was used as a temporary fortification in Kalbaņa's own time and underwent a severe siege.3

The site on which Avantivarman's town was built, bad apparently enjoyed some sanctity before these temples were founded, and bore the old name Visvaikasāra.

The great extent of the town is indicated by the traces of ruined buildings which cover the foot of the hills east of Vant por for a considerable distance. The frequent references to Avantipura in the Chronicles show that the town retained some importauce long after the death of its founder.

We hear but little of other old sites in Holndā. The great town of Mihirapura which King Mihirakula is said to have founded in it, can no longer be traced.3 Khuli, a village situated a short distance to the south-west of Tral, the modern headquarters of the district, may possibly be the Khola of the Chronicle, one of Gopäditya's Agrahāras. Of Trāl I am unable to trace any old notice.

The identification of the village of Būts, about two miles south of Khuli, with the old BHAVACCHEDA is also uncertain. It is based on a gloss of Rājānaka Ratnakaņķha, the writer of the Codex Archetypus of the Rājatarangiņi. Still further south lies the village of Kai, probably the old Katika named by Kalhaņa as a foundation of Tuñjina 1.6 This identification is made in the old gloss on the passage and supported by the phonetic evidence of the modern name.

Of old remains in Vular the interesting temple of Nārastān at the northern extremity of the district (34° 3' lat. 75° 10' long.) deserves notice. Unfortunately I am unable to find any clue as to its old name

1 See for a full description J. A. 8. B., 1848, pp. 275 sqq. ; also ib., 1866, 121 sqq. & See Räjat. viii. 1429 sq., 1474 899. 8 See Räjat. i. 306. • See Rüjat. i. 340. 6 Compare iï. 381 note. 6 Rajat. ii, 14.

7 See Mr. Lawrence's notice, Valley, p. 172. The attached photograph shows the site after my excavations. Regarding the result of the latter, see Vienna Oriental Journal, 1891, p. 345 899.

J. 1. 22

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