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route offered by the marshes which stretch between Par spōr and Patan, a distance of only seven miles.

Though Samkarapura owed thus to its founder but little that could secure distinction, yet the site he had chosen for it was one likely to retain some importance. Pațan still lies on the direct road between Srinagar and Bārāmūla, reckoned at two daily marches, and has probably always just as now been the half-way station between the two places. Considering that Bārāmūla is the starting point of the route to the west, traffic and trade were thus sure to be attracted to Samkaravarman's town. We find it referred to as a local centre still in Kalhaṇa's time, and it has remained to the present day a large and thriving place. Patan figures as a separate Pargana in Abu-l-Fazl's list. A popular tradition has it that when Tōdar Mal, Akbar's minister, was arranging for the redistribution of Parganas, he inadvertently omitted the Patan village at which he was just then encamped. To remedy the mistake Patan with its immediate vicinity was made into an additional Pargana. However this may be, we find Patan subsequently named as the chief place of the Tilagam Pargana. At the last settlement it became the headquarters of one of the new Tahsils.

The Pambasar lake which stretches to the east of Patan as far as the Gond Ibrahim' and 'Adin River' of the map, is referred to by Kalhana under the name of PAMPASARAS. King Harṣa seems to have extended or regulated it. The Karewa ground to the west of Pațan with the deep valleys which intersect it, forms the Pargana of Tilagām. It is mentioned in the Fourth Chronicle, 780, by the name of TAILA



About four miles to the north-west of Patan and on the high road to Bārāmūla lies Tapar, a considerable village. On the evidence of an old gloss and several passages of the Chronicles, it can be safely identified with the ancient PRATAPAPURA. The latter was founded by King Pratāpāditya Durlabhaka, the father of Lalitaditya, probably in the second half of the seventh century. When visiting the place in 1892 I found close to the road two ruined mounds covered with large slabs and architectural fragments evidently marking the sites of old temples. Since then, I am informed, most of these remains have been turned into road metal by the native contractors employed in the construction of the new cartroad to Srinagar.

1 See BATES, Gazetteer, p. 2.

2 See MOORCROFT, ii. p. 113; VIGNE, ii. 166.

3 See Rajat. vii. 940 note.

Compare Rājat, iv. 10 note.

124. The district through which the Vitasta flows immediately before leaving the Valley, bears now the name District of Kruhin. of Kruhin. The ancient form of this name is unknown unless the Lokaprakāśa's 'Krodhanaviṣaya' may be connected with the tract. Kruhin extends along both sides of the river, but its greater portion lies on the left bank.

Proceeding on the road towards Bārāmūla and at a distance of about six miles from the latter place, we pass on our right the village of Kanispōr. It is identified by an old glossator of the Rajatarangiṇī and by the Persian Chroniclers with the ancient KANIŞKAPURA. The latter is mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi as a town founded by the Turuşka king Kanişka, whom we know as the great Indo-Scythian or Kuşana ruler from the coins and Buddhist tradition. There are no conspicuous remains above ground at Kanispōr, but old coins and carved stones are occasionally extracted from an old mound near the village. We have already had occasion to speak of the important position occupied by the ancient twin towns HUSKAPURA Varahamula. and VARAHAMULA. Built on the banks of the Vitastā immediately above the gorge through which the river leaves the Valley, they form the starting-point on the great route of communication to the west. It is unnecessary to refer here again to the commercial and other advantages which have made this site one of great importance from ancient times to the present day.

Varāhamūla, situated on the right river-bank, has left its name to the present town of Varahmul, usually called Baramula by Panjabis and other foreigners. The name Varāhamula or Vārāhamula—both forms occur in our texts-is itself derived from the ancient Tirtha of Viṣṇu Ādi-Varāha who was worshipped here evidently since early times. From it the site of the town and its whole neighbourhood received also the designation of Varahakṣetra. Various legends related at length in the Varahakṣetramāhātmya and often alluded to in the Nilamata and the other Māhātmyas, connect this sacred site and the Tirthas of the immediate neighbourhood with the Varaha or Boar incarnation of Viṣņu. An abstract of these legends as well as an accurate description of the scanty remains of ancient date to be found at the several Tirthas, has been given by Prof. Bühler,3

1 Compare Rajat. i. 168 note. General Cunningham's suggested identification of Kanişkapura with 'Kampōr,' on the road from Srinagar to Supiyan, is unsupported by any evidence. The place is really called Khāmpōr and has no ancient remains whatever.

2 For detailed references regarding Varāhamula and Varahakṣetra, see Rājat. vi. 186 note.

3 See Report, pp. 11 sqq.

J. 1. 26

The ancient temple of Varaha which seems to have been one of the most famous shrines of Kaśmir, is repeatedly Temple of Varāha. mentioned by Kalhana. According to the tradition of the local Purohitas it stood near the site of the present Koțitirtha, at the western extremity of the town and close to the riverbank. Some ancient Lingas and sculptures found at the Koțitirtha may have originally belonged to the temple. The destruction of its sacred image is noted by Jonarāja in the reign of Sikandar Būtshikast.1 A short distance below this site where a steep spur runs down to the river-bed, stood the ancient watch-station, still known as Drang, which has already been described. A bridge over the Vitastā existed at Varāhamūla already in old times.?

It cannot be doubted that Varāhamūla is a very ancient place. It enjoyed the advantage of being on the right river-bank, which is followed by the old route down the Vitastā Valley. But on the other hand the contracted nature of the ground which it occupies, between the hill-side and the river, did not favour the development of a large town. On this account we find that the twin town of HUSKAPURA built on the open plain of the opposite bank was in ancient times the larger of the two places. Huskapura is mentioned by Kalhana as the town built by King Huska, the Turuşka, and is often referred to in his subsequent narrative. Its name survives in that of the small village of Uşkür, situated about two miles to the south-east of the present Bārāmūla. The identity of Uşkür and Huskapura, correctly noted already by General Cunningham, is wellknown to Srinagar Pandits, and is indicated also by an old glossator of the Rajatarangiņi. Kalhana in one passage distinctly includes Hugkapura within Varahakṣetra, i.e., the sacred environs of the Varaha Tirtha, and the same location is implied by numerous other references in the Chronicle.


King Huska of the Rājatarangiņi has long ago been identified with the Indo-Scythian ruler who succeeded Kanişka, the Huviska of the inscriptions and the OOHPKI of the coins. The foundation of Huskapura falls thus probably within the first century of our era. Hiuen Tsiang, as we saw, spent his first night after passing through the western entrance of the kingdom, in a convent of Hu-se-kia-lo or Huskapura. Albērūni too knows 'Ūshkārā' opposite to Bārāmūla.

1 Compare Jonar. 600.

$ See Rajat. viii. 413.

For detailed references as to Huskapura: Uşkür, see Rājat. i. 168 note.
See Anc. Geogr., pp. 99 sq.

See vi. 186.

Kalhana mentions Huskapura far more frequently than Varahamula. The conclusion to be drawn herefrom as to the relative importance of the two places in Hindu times, is confirmed by the frequent references which the Chronicle makes to religious buildings erected in Huskapura. Of King Lalitāditya-Muktāpiḍa it is recorded that he built there the great temple of Viṣṇu Muktasvāmin and a large Vihāra with a Stúpa. Kṣemagupta who sought the sacred soil of Varahakṣetra in his fatal illness, had founded two Mathas at Huskapura.


At present foundations of ancient buildings can be traced at numerous points of the plain which stretches from the left river-bank towards the low hills behind Uşkür. These remains as well as two colossal Lingas still in situ have already been noted by Bishop Cowie. About 400 yards to the west of the village are the much-damaged remains of a Stupa, which had been found still intact by Bishop Cowie and photographed in that condition by Major Cole (1870). Subsequently it was dug into and partly levelled down "by some Şahib's order," as the villagers told me. Of this excavation I have not been able to trace a report. But General Cunningham refers to an ancient coin of the Taxila type which was found in this Stupa and had come into his possession.

It is possible that this Stupa was identical with the one which King Lalitaditya erected at Huşkapura. Of the Vihara which Kalhana mentions in connection with the king's Stupa, I have shown elsewhere that it was in all probability the same convent which Ou-k'ong refers to under the name of Moung-ti Vihāra. The Moung-ti of the Chinese transcription seems to represent a prakritized form of the shortened name Mukta or Muktā. The latter forms which are abbreviations (bhimavat) for Muktapida, occur also in the designations of other religious buildings erected by that king (Muktākešava, Muktasvāmin).

As we do not meet with the name of Huşkapura in any of the later Chronicles it may be assumed that its importance did not survive the time of Hindu rule.

1 See Rajat. iv. 188.

Rajat. vi. 186.

8 See J. A. 8. B., 1866, p. 123.

4 See Coins of Anc. India, p. 62.

5 Compare Notes on Ou-k'ong, pp. 5 sqq.; Rājat. iv. 188 note.


125. The ancient localities in the Vitasta Valley below Varāhamula have been noted by us already in connection with the route which leads through it. We may therefore proceed now to those Parganas of the ancient Kramarajya which lie to the north of the river and the Volur lake.

The district which adjoins Kruhin in this direction, is known as Hamal (map 'Hummel'). Its ancient name District of Samālā. was SAMĀLĀ from which the former designation is the direct phonetic derivative. Samālā is very frequently mentioned in the last two Books of the Rajatarangiņi, particularly on account of its feudal chiefs or Dāmaras who played a prominent part in all the civil wars of the later reigns. The pretender Bhikṣācara in particular had his most powerful adherents in Samālā and often took refuge with them. The village of VANAGRAMA which is mentioned on one of these occasions, is probably identical with the present Vangām, situated circ. 74° 25′ long. 34° 19' lat. Kākaruha, another place in Samālā, referred to in connection with Bhikṣacara's campaigns, can no longer be traced. To the north of Hamal we reach the Pargana of Mach1pūr (map Mochipoora.') Its ancient name is nowhere mentioned. In it lies the sacred site of SVAYAMBHU which owing to the apparently volcanic phenomenon there observed has from early times been renowned as a Tirtha. Kalhaṇa in his introduction duly notes the 'Self-created Fire' (Svayambhu), which "rising from the womb of the earth, receives with numerous arms of flame the offerings of the sacrificers." 3

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The spot meant is still known as Svayambhu, or to the villagers as Suyam. It lies on a low ridge about half a mile south-west of the village of Nich hōm (not shown on map) and about one and a half miles north of Tsakavaḍar (map Sheik wadda.') Visiting it in 1892 I found there in a shallow hollow the soil bright red like burned clay and furrowed by narrow fissures. In certain years steam has been known to issue from these fissures. The ground then becomes sufficiently hot to boil the Sraddha offerings of the pilgrims who at such times flock to the site in great numbers. The phenomenon which may be either truly volcanic or, according to a modern authority, be caused by hidden seams of coal taking fire, was last observed in the year 1876. Occurrences at

1 See Rajat. vii. 159 note.

2 See Rajat. viii. 1438.

3 See Rājat, i. 34, and for further references the note thereon.

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